Cooperation between governmental institutions and private actors in designing and financing programs and services is a fundamental part of the smart city strategy. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are, in fact, fully recognized as a useful tool to improve the quality of delivered services and, above all, to ensure their economic sustainability. Through the involvement of businesses and private capital, it is possible to co-define, co-produce and, above all, to co-finance innovative projects.

Financial cooperation between public and private actors can be structured in different ways. This section, therefore, proposes financing instruments that can ‘inspire’ local policy-makers who want to start PPPs. We strongly recommend choosing the most appropriate model only after an in-depth analysis and assessment of the local context and its needs.